Nature has the power of nurturing human being and even destroy them too. The fury of nature cannot be contained or stopped. Hurricanes are one of the natures’ disasters that cause catastrophic effects on human life. Hurricanes are extremely dangerous and cause severe damage to living things and the property as well. Initially, there wasn’t any measure to estimate the severity of the Hurricanes and the damage they could cause and scientists had no way to know how to differentiate them. Hence to determine the type of hurricane scientists found a method, more specifically a scale by which they could know which type of hurricane it is. The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) is used to categorise the hurricanes. To categories the hurricanes various factors are taken into accounts such as the wind speed, storm surge, damage caused by the hurricane, rain, flooding, size of the hurricane and others. Hurricanes are classified into 5 categories.
There Are Following Types of Hurricanes:
Category 1 Type:
In this type of hurricane, very dangerous winds will produce some damage. Category 1 hurricanes do not cause significant property damage to well-structured buildings and homes.The wind speed of this type of hurricanes is 33–42 m/s. This type of hurricanes causes ordinary damage to the roofs and tiles of the homes. It can also uproot or break the trees. The power outages can last few days to several. Although this type of hurricanes is no intense in nature still they can cause serious damage and can be life-threatening.
Category 1 Hurricanes Examples:
Danny (1985), Jerry (1989), Hernan (1996), Claudette (2003), Gaston (2004), Humberto (2007), Isaac (2012), Barbara (2013), Earl (2016), Hermine (2016) and Newton (2016)
Category 2 Hurricanes:
This type of hurricanes have Extremely dangerous winds will cause extensive damage. Category 2 hurricanes cause severe damage to the roofs of the houses. The doors are windows are damaged. Poorly constructed homes are collapsed. The wind speed of this type of hurricanes is 43–49 m/s. Extreme power and drinkable water outage are also caused.
Category 2 Hurricanes Examples:
Fifi (1974), Diana (1990), Erin (1995), Alma (1996), Juan (2003), Alex (2010), Tomas (2010), Carlotta (2012), Ernesto (2012), Richard (2012), and Arthur (2014).
Category 3 Hurricanes:
This type of hurricanes can cause devastating damage. Category 3 hurricanes can cause damage to small utility building and homes at a severe level. The wind speed of this type of hurricanes is 50–58 m/s. Poorly constructed homes are seen to be demolished at irreparable extent. It also causes flooding near coastal areas and the property is damaged by the water and floating debris.
Category 3 Hurricanes Examples:
Carol (1954), Alma (1966), Celia (1970), Alicia (1983), Roxanne (1995), Fran (1996), Isidore (2002), Lane (2006), Karl (2010), Sandy (2012) and Otto (2016)
Category 4 Hurricanes:
Category 4 hurricanes cause catastrophic damage. This type of hurricanes can severe damage to the homes and the buildings, especially the mobile and manufactured homes. The wind speed of this type of hurricanes is 58–70 m/s. The gas stations canopies are demolished. The trees are uprooted at a very high number. The power and water outage can be continued for several weeks.
Category 4 Hurricanes Examples:
Hazel (1954), Flora (1963), Cleo (1964), Madeline (1976), Frederic (1979), Joan (1988), Iniki (1992), Luis (1995), Charley (2004), Dennis (2005), Gustav (2008), Ike (2008) and Joaquin (2015).
Category 5 Hurricanes:
Category 4 hurricanes cause the most damage and more dangerous as compared to other categories of hurricanes and it is the highest category of the Saffir–Simpson scale. The wind speed of this type of hurricanes is ≥ 70 m/s. This type of hurricanes can cause huge damage to the small buildings and house resulting in the collapsed homes and smaller buildings. The structures near the coasts are severely affected and destroyed the storm surge. Massive evacuation of residential areas may be required if the hurricane starts to direct to the populated areas. People usually stay in the basements of their homes as there’s a high possibility of life-threat as the houses collapse. Houses are damaged beyond repair. Longer power and water outages that can last for several months.
Category 5 Hurricanes Examples:
Camille (1969), Anita (1977), David (1979), Gilbert (1988), Andrew (1992), Dean (2007), and Felix (2007).
After the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season where the hurricane caused catastrophic damage in recorded history by 3,913 deaths and record damage of about $159.2 billion, many scientists and experts raised a question that whether there should be a Category 6 of Hurricanes or not.
Hurricanes can cause huge damage to the property as well as human life. The safety of the people affected by the hurricanes should be taken care of. People should keep hurricane disaster kit and other important things at the place where they can be easily accessed.
Reference: Wiki Hurricanes