After the fights of many decades and sacrifices of lives of thousands of martyrs India got its independence. Many freedom fighters laid their lives and fought till their last breath. Their names are written in golden letters in the history of India. But some memories from the history of the battle of our independence are still horrifying us and one of such horrible memory is the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. This unfortunate and inhumane incident will stay forever in our minds and will always remind us the sacrifices of people for our independence.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre is one of the important incidents in our history of independence of India and the students in schools and college are asked to write essays, speeches, paragraphs on Jallianwala Bagh Massacre tragedy. In this article, we have given you all the necessary information, details, points about Jallianwala Bagh Massacre such as when and where it took place, who was behind it, what were the causes and reasons behind it and what effects and consequences took place after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. This information will help you to write the best essay, speech, paragraph on Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. So let’s start.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre Remembrance Day 13 April 1919 Essay, Information, Speech
The pathway to India’s freedom from the British empire is full of struggle and sacrifices made by our great freedom fighters. There are numerous incidents in our history where Indians laid down their lives for their motherland. But the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre which took place on April 13, 1919, in Amritsar, Punjab is considered to be one of the most horrific incidents in Indian history. This incident shook the entire country as it involved the massive killing of thousands of innocent and unarmed people including women and children.
After this incident, the Jallianwala Bagh has been declared as one of the most important memorials of national importance in the history of India’s freedom struggle. It has become a popular tourist and pilgrimage spot as people come here to catch a glimpse of this ruthless incident and to pay homage to thousands who died at this place.
What is the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre?
On April 10, 1919, two nationalist leaders- Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satya Pal were arrested by the British government in Punjab. Their arrest agitated the people of Punjab who protested to set their leaders free. Due to increasing unrest among the people, the government banned public meetings and requested the military to take up the charge of Amritsar and as a result, General Dyer was put in charge. The government put a ban on public gatherings and also dismissed the meeting scheduled to be held on April, 13th, the day of Baisakhi. But the notice of the ban was not made public. Hence a large number of people, almost 25,000, unaware of the military orders, gathered in the small Jallianawala Bagh to protest against the arrests of their leaders. The peaceful gathering was attended by unarmed men, women and innocent children.
Suddenly General Dyer, the British military in charge, entered the Bagh along with 150 troops and surrounded the gathering. Since the Bagh was enclosed by walls on all sides and had only one narrow passage for both entry and exit, Dyer ordered his troops to close it and open fire at the peaceful and unarmed crowd till all the ammunition ran out. The firing lasted for fifteen minutes and people had no way to escape. In the cold-blooded encounter, more than thousand people were massacred and over twice that number injured including women and children. Many people jumped into a nearby well to escape the firing and the skeletons of 120 of them were recovered later. The merciless act shook not only Punjab but the entire nation and became a turning point in the history of India’s struggle for freedom.
Causes and Reasons of the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy
- World War I
World War I was the first underlying cause of the massacre. The people of Punjab had tremendous animosity for the British government since the beginning of World War I, mainly due to the ruthless drive of the British colonialists of recruiting soldiers and compelling them to participate in the war.
- Rowlatt Act of 1919(The Black Act)
Secondly, the Central Legislative Council passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919. According to this repressive Act, any person could be arrested on the basis of suspicion and no petition could be filed against such arrests. This Act was called the Black Act and people all over the country opposed it.
- Growing unity of Indians
Gandhiji called for a country-wide hartal on March 30 and April 6 to protest against the Black Acts which received enormous backlash from Punjab. Both Hindus and the Muslims collectively participated in the strikes and on April 9 celebration of the Ramnavami festival further alarmed the British government to take quick action against the growing unity of Indians.
- The Arrest of Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satya Pal
Therefore, two popular leaders of Amritsar, Kitchlew and Satya Pal, were arrested. This led to hartals and mass demonstrations in Lahore, Kasur, Gujranwala, and Amritsar. The police firing in Amritsar agitated the demonstrators and provoked them to commit violence. Next day the city was handed over to Brigadier-General Dyer. As soon as Dyer took charge, he ordered arrests and banned public meetings and gatherings
Effects and Consequences of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
The Massacre had been a premeditated move with the aim to create fear and terror among the Indians. Following the massacre, the inhabitants of Amritsar were tortured brutally. On the contrary, mass riots erupted in Punjab and the government had to place five of the districts under martial law. Eventually, an inquiry committee was set up. The Disorder Inquiry Committee known as Hunter Committee after its chairman, Lord Hunter, held Brigadier-General Dyer guilty of the act that took away thousands of lives. Dyer had no regrets and declared with pride that he had done it to produce a moral effect on the people. He also stated that he had gone to the Bagh along with his troop with the deliberate intention of open firing on the crowd.
The after-effects of the massacre
- There were strikes, protests and violence all over the country and attacks on government buildings.
- Several restrictions were imposed on Indians and Satyagrahis were maltreated by the officers.
- They were made to crawl on the streets and do salaam (salute) to all the sahibs (British officers). People were thrashed and villages were bombed.
99 years have passed since the fateful event cemented our hatred for the colonial empire and till date, no representative of Britain has cared enough to apologize for the brutal act. The bullet marks are still there on the walls of the bagh, reminding the visitor of the atrocities that were forced upon the unarmed people and leaving him overwhelmed.
The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre has a deep impact on the minds of people and it will definitely be one of the cruelest act done by the British Raj. This unfortunate incident will always make us remember the sacrifices of thousands of people to achieve our independence. And as the citizens of India, it is our moral responsibility to make our country proud.
Tips for Essay on Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
Here are some best tips for the essay on Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
- An essay is made of 3 parts and those are introduction, main story and ending with the conclusion. Try to write your essay in this format.
- Before starting to write the essay, think what you are going to write in the essay.
- Use a dark inked pen to make more impact.
- Keep your handwriting neat and clean.
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