Essay on Illiteracy in India in English for Class 5 to 12 Students

Illiteracy in india speech essay article paragraph

Many schools and colleges organize various competitions like speech and essay competitions. Students are also asked to write essays on various topics in exams. We are giving you this essay on illiteracy in India and how it is affecting the lives of people in India. This essay on Illiteracy in India will help you to write a better essay and to build a perfect speech. You can modify the content as per your requirements as speeches and essays have different structures. So let’s start.

Essay on Illiteracy in India in English for Class 5 to 12 Students

 Introduction of Illiteracy in India

Food, Clothes, and Shelter these are basic needs of human being and now education has also become very important in human life. Putting into simple world education is important because it gives us the baseline skills to survive in the world. Education gives us skills and tools, we need to navigate through our life. Without education, people would not be able to read, write, calculate or communicate. They would not be able to perform jobs accurately and safely.

The progress of any country can be observed by the literacy rate of that country and India currently has the largest illiterate population. The rapidly growing population is one of the major problems faced by India. Along with it, there are other major problems faced by India, such as Corruption, Poverty, Black money, Unemployment, Illiteracy, and many others. These problems are somehow correlated with each other. The rapidly rising population causes a lack of education and job opportunities, which results in poverty.

Literacy is a key for socio-economic progress of any country. The literacy rate in India has grown to 74%(in 2011) from 12% when we got independence in 1947. Although it is a great improvement still we are still behind the world as the world’s average literacy rate is 84%. According to the 2011 census, the effective literacy rate for the males was 82.14% and for females, it was 65.42%.  The low female literacy rate has had a negative impact on family planning and population control efforts in India.

Causes of Illiteracy in India

The illiteracy in India is becoming a major concern now. 74.04% population in literate whereas the remaining population is still struggling for the education facilities. There are some factors where are responsible for the illiteracy in India and those are as follows,

Huge Population

The rapidly rising population has become a headache for India. The rising population creates problems like unemployment, lack of health and medical facilities, and lack of education facilities too. People are not able to have access to basic primary education because of the rising population.


Poverty is one of the major problems faced by India. The poverty causes many other problems like lack of education facilities. Because of poverty, people cannot afford to take education. Also, poor people tend to make their children work rather than study because of financial problems.

Lack of Opportunities for Poor

As compared to urban areas there are very low education facilities in rural areas. There are very few schools in rural areas of India and also due to lack of a medium of transportation students in rural areas have to walk for miles to reach to the school.

Lack of School Facilities

Due to financial problems school management is not able to provide the education facilities to students. No proper seating arrangements, lack of sanitation facilities, no healthy food is provided by the school management.

Unqualified Teaching Staff

The unqualified teaching staff is also the reason behind students not getting the required knowledge from the school. Due to the lack of qualified staff, the unqualified staff is recruited to teach students. This degrades the quality of education.

High Dropout Rate

Students tend to leave school when they fail the examination. This is one of the main reasons behind the illiteracy in India. This is usually seen in the rural areas of India.

Gender Bias

In India, girls are discriminated in terms of education. They are not sent to school just because they are female and are forced to stay at home and do the household work.

Social Problems

Social problems like caste discrimination, child marriage, child labor, untouchability are strong causes of a large percentage of Indian children being denied even basic primary school education.

Effects of Illiteracy in India

Illiteracy affects the personal growth of people and the economic progress of the country. There are many other effects and consequences of Illiteracy in India.


Poverty is one of the major reasons behind illiteracy in India. Lack of education makes people unqualified for any job opportunity. When they are not able the get the job and earn money, the living becomes very difficult for them.

Higher Crime Rates

Lack of education hinders the social awareness of an individual. They are not able to differentiate between good and bad and tend to the crime world. Also, illiteracy makes the earning money very difficult, hence people find unethical and wrong ways to earn money.

Affects Social and Economic Growth

Lack of education hampers the social growth of any individual and in turn, the overall community. Illiteracy also hinders the economic progress of the country.


Lack of required skills and education make illiterate people unqualified for the job. Illiteracy has caused unemployment in India and it is one of the biggest problems faced by India.

Steps Taken by Govt. of India to reduce/Stop Illiteracy

To reduce the illiteracy rate in India Government of India has started many initiatives and schemes to encourage people to get quality education and make them capable of earning the living in both urban and rural areas. The primary education has been free for all. New schools, especially in rural areas have been made to provide education facilities for more students.

National Literacy Mission Programme was Introduced in 1988, that aims to educate about 80 million people in India.

Saakshar Bharat is another program that aims at achieving 80% literacy level at the national level, by focusing on adult women literacy seeking to reduce the gap between male and female literacy.

Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act is an act passed by the Parliament in 2009 which ensures compulsory education for children of age between 6- 14 years.

Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) is a scheme launched in 2013 that aims at providing strategic funding to eligible state higher educational institutions.


Illiteracy is one of the biggest problems faced by India. It can be reduced by spreading awareness to the people and making them understand the importance of education. The Government of India is trying hard to change the situation by introducing various schemes and programs to encourage people to have a proper education.

Tips for Speech on Illiteracy in India

  1. Never mug up the speech script as it is. That sounds like a robot, your audience will not connect with it. To take care of this while delivering your speech on Illiteracy in India.
  2. Rather than reciting the complete script, note down only important bullet points and speak from your heart. When you speak from the heart you might fumble once or twice but it connects with your audience. We are humans after all we all make mistakes.
  3. If you are confident enough try to be interactive with your listeners. Ask them questions.
  4. If you are a parent don’t force kids to mug it up. Help them to understand the topics and it’s important. In real life, you just can’t survive with mugged up answers, isn’t it? Today’s generation is 10 times smarter than our generation they can easily understand the topic.
  5. If you are speaking in public for the first time then you better try a speech in front of parents, siblings or friends. Ask them feedback and revisit the script. Or else at least try speech in front of the mirror.

Tips for Essay on Illiteracy in India

  1. Essay generally have three main parts, Introduction, impact or more detailed info and then summary or conclusion. Don’t use headers in the essay. But you should divide the essay into these 3 logical sections. Keep these things in your mind while writing your essay on Illiteracy in India.
  2. Try to maintain a flow between sections. Carry forward a point from the last paragraph and then take it forward.
  3. You can start a new paragraph with words or phrases like “on another hand, plus, at first, however”.
  4. It is important to have a conclusion or summary for an essay on Illiteracy in India
  5.  You don’t need to be positive all the time for conclusion, it can be a mix of both emotions. Try to have an inspiring, positive, euphoric conclusion.
  6. There are various types of Essay writing. The essay on illiteracy in India comes under expository essay writing. If you want to read more about Types of essay writing, how to write the best essay, essay format samples, and best tips, then read the article.

If you find this essay on illiteracy in India helpful, then don’t forget to appreciate us with your valuable comment. 🙂

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