We all must be familiar with the phrase called ‘human rights’. When seen in a literal sense of the term, human rights shall be referring to the privileges humankind gets just on the basis of being human beings. Although it seems extremely natural that one should be possessing the same without even discussing the topic, yet the fact is, guaranteeing human rights do not come easily even though it is the most important set of rights to have as a human.
Human rights are an essential part of human life. People should be educated about their basic fundamental rights as early as possible. Hence students in schools and college are educated about the human rights in schools. And to do that schools organise various competitions, activities events on the eve of various important days. So, in this article, we have given you all the information about Human Rights such as what is human rights and its meaning and definition, the list of basic fundamental human rights, history of Human rights, human rights violation and exploitation in India and the world, benefits of human rights, etc. Thos information will definitely help you write the best essay on human rights and other similar topics. So let’s start.
Essay on Human Rights, Human Rights Violations in India Speech, Paragraph & Article
Introduction To Human Rights: History and Nature of the same
Natural rights, as a source, forms the basis of human rights. Earlier when society had the evil ongoing practice of slavery and denial of rights to peasants and other laborer class, several movements were made to abolish them on the basis of natural rights. Bartolomeu de la Casas was a pioneer of social reform, who fought for Spanish indigenous people’s rights vis a vis the Spanish aristocracy arguing that every person had their right to life. The French Revolution sparked another wave of social renaissance where equality fraternity and liberty became the hallmarks of society and the demand was made to suspend inhuman repression of common people. The United States established an example by establishing a Bill of Rights, a pivot in their Constitution itself that guaranteed freedom for every person.
Human Rights can be broadly said to be constituted of:
- Right To Life
- Right To Movement
- Right to Property
- Right Of Equality
- Right To Law
- Right To Dignity
This makes it clear that human rights make it illegal to discriminate between people irrespective of their class, caste, gender and any other social status as these rights are ought to have a universal application. Sadly, even in the 21st century full realization of human rights have not taken place across the globe.
The Origin and History of Human Rights
Human rights and values form an intrinsic part of the human civilization. From old times like the formation of Constitution Of Medina by Prophet Muhammad in the 622 CE, The Al Risallah Al Huquq constituted by the fourth Imam of the Shia community in between the 7th and 8th century to the Charter of Magna Carta in the 1215AD till the formation of Bill of Rights of the US Constitution in 1791. At every stage, an attempt was made to codify and broaden the scope of a set of rights applicable to every person irrespective of their background and social affiliation.
In India, one is to forever respect the role of Mahatma Gandhi for his role in human rights and administration of justice. He became the face of civil rights movement in India who led the famous peaceful organization of people to oppose the brutal and discriminatory nature of British rule in India. From Satyagraha to his Dandi March, Mahatma Gandhi became the chief vocalist of establishing equal Indian rights under British rule. People like Raja Rammohan Roy, Rabindranath Tagore, Swami Vivekananda, BR Ambedkar were pivotal in bringing about an end to various social evils opposed to human rights including women oppression and the caste system.
The Second World war, with Nazism unleashing human rights violation of the unprecedented order, in form of genocide against Jews, the world finally accepted the immediate need of adopting a strict human rights order.
What Are Human Rights | The List of Human Rights
After the Second World War, the United Nations Charter officially adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on 10th of December 1948, that recognized the need to protect human beings from scourges of war, discrimination and violence. There are 30 articles within the scope of declaration as well as several other declarations appended to it. In a gist, the notion of human rights include:
- Right To Freedom of Thought, expression and religion.
- Right to political asylum.
- Right of nationality.
- Right before the law and legal recourse
- Right to family, property and privacy.
- Right to public service
- Right to an adequate standard of living including food and leisure
- Right to equal employment opportunity and equal pay.
- Right against discrimination based on language, creed or community.
- Right to Education and participate in any community affair.
While stating the above rights it was made clear that no attempt can be made to defeat the essence of the rights and freedom mentioned within the scope of the charter. Nevertheless, in instances such as Black Movement in the US, the rampant disregard for human rights during the course of civil wars like that in Syria, Vietnam, it was proved that violations of human rights continue to take place on a regular basis.
Importance and Significance Of Human Rights
No human can possibly or should never be undermining the aspect of human rights which are inalienable to the existence of human beings. With a rise in violations against human civilizations, human rights have come to occupy an essential factor in global issues. Without human rights, social security laws that grant equal pay based on work done, old age social security measures, right to health and hospital and medical treatment for all, right to travel based on fair documentation, all these will come to cease.
Human rights form the basis for a secular and democratic country where every person has equal access to religion, political participation and is free to choose their religion. No government, unless any criminal record is found against an individual, can rob an individual to such basic privileges. Meant to remove oppression and discrimination, human rights is the basis of progress in human civilization.
Human Rights In India & Violation Of Human Rights in India
Fundamental Rights, stated in Part III Articles 12 to 35 of the Indian Constitution notes down the various privileges available to the citizens of India which are guaranteed by the Constitution. The human rights in Indian Constitution include Right to Life, Right To Freedom of Expression, Freedom of Religion, Freedom from slavery and untouchability, Cultural and Educational Rights, Right to Freedom and Equality.
All these human rights although included in Fundamental Rights, yet as they are not legalized by laws as legal directives, therefore, the actual and ground implementation of these rights are left at the mercy of the government and mostly the executive. For example, although Freedom of Expression is guaranteed under the Fundamental Rights, yet during the declaration of Emergency Ruling in the 1970s, the Indira Gandhi Government put the freedom of the press on hold. Again although untouchability is forbidden or any discrimination based on caste and Varna is prohibited (under Article 15 and 17) even today in remote places of the country, we often read of reports where upper caste people exploit and prohibits Dalits or lower class people from equal access to public places or mixing with upper caste people freely.
Again even though under Right To Life any person can have access to legal recourse, even then several cases of arbitrary arrest and denial or delay in seeking judicial access is regularly reported in the country. Often, because of the high fees of lawyers, low-class people cannot have equal access to a good lawyer which no doubt becomes a problem for them in complicated legal issues. The recent mishaps of public lynching for people’s individual choice of food again set an example that freedom of choice is still at a distance from full realization.
National Human Rights Commission India
The National Human Rights Commission of India was constituted to be an autonomous statutory body by the Protection of Human Rights Act 1993. The Commission has the scope to probe and oversee any violations of human rights by any private or government authority, it can also intervene by the court’s leave into cases concerning human rights violation, review the available privileges of human rights in order to apply in recommended cases, grant gender equality and similar functions. The chief reason National Human Rights Commission is so important in India is that under the Indian Penal Code, it is very difficult to bring a charge against a public servant in any violation they might make while discharging their duty. National Human Rights Commission seeks to constantly educate masses as well as update the nature and scope of the Protection of Human Rights Act which makes it an extremely dynamic body.
Merits and Demerits of Human Rights | Advantages & Disadvantages
Demerits of Human Rights is hard to find as an idea. However, the chief argument on human rights has been that despite the provisioning of human rights across most countries, the fact that most rights remain as directives make them a tool in the hands of the executive authority. In most cases, we see that despite so many rights being granted that assure freedom of individuals, but lack of awareness and movement to make the laws make them of very less use. Human rights in environmental protection are the current need of the hour with global warming being present everywhere but still, most countries and top organizations do not pay heed and continue rampant violations against the environment.
Human Rights gains more merits under the scenario of Human Rights and Globalization. In a globalised world, with more freedom of movement and places, social justice is brought about by the universal standard of human rights where no person can be legally discriminated regardless of the country they are in. Also, because human rights are granted under an inalienable form of right, this makes exploitation a less common occurrence that can be legally sought to be redressed. Rights come with duties and therefore human rights also help citizens to fulfil the human duties necessary to realize the rights fully.
Solution and Remedies To protect Human Rights: Various Laws and Acts to Protect Human Rights
Various acts and laws have come into operation time and again that seeks to uphold the revered concept of human rights. International Humanitarian Law, for example, constituted on the basis of Geneva and Hague conventions, seek to protect innocent people during the course of the war and regulates the manner of international civil conflict. Again the Human Rights Act of the United Kingdom in 1998 was passed in order to protect individuals from any arbitrary or discriminatory practice by administrative agents and public offices. The Act upholds the right of every resident including non-citizens in the UK.
In India, there are several acts that actively seek to protect various forms of human rights. Women and children, for example, are a vulnerable community in the country. Hence, there are several laws that protect their right. Some examples are:
- Immoral Traffic Prevention Act 1956
- Commissions For Protection Of Child Acts 2005
- Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929
- National Commission For Women Act 1990
Post the advent of terrorist activities, the Indian government has actively been vocal that terrorism constitutes the grossest violation of human rights. Also, human and child trafficking is dealt severely in India which is punishable under section 370 of the Indian Penal Code.
It is necessary to note that even though there are acts in place to prevent violation and exploitation of human rights but when it comes down to the knowledge of security and human rights, often a great mismatch takes place. In Special Administrative areas that are volatile in terms of political concern (Jammu and Kashmir, Parts of North East India, Chattisgarh region), very, unfortunately, the guarantors of peace and rights indulge in the various skewed application of human rights owing to corrupt practices.
Therefore it is extremely important to make awareness grow on issues of human rights and make commissions to oversee its matter neutral in its governance. Also, NGOs that deal with the issues of human rights should be granted more funds and media should raise more constructive debates on matters of human rights. These days social media platforms with the rise of hashtags and quick connect can achieve a lot in less time for fast-track spreading of awareness.
Human Rights Day: Concluding on a celebratory note
The World Human Rights Day is celebrated on 10th of December every year. This so, to mark the adoption of International Human Rights Charter on 10th of December 1948. It is a moment of happiness to note that this year 2018 becomes the 70th anniversary of World Human Rights Day. To mark it, a year-long campaign started off in December last year in Paris which will see several branches of United Nations coming together for active promotion and participation with programmes being held at UN Headquarters in New York. The Secretary-General of the United Nations addresses a global audience every year to celebrate the fact that with this day, social justice was significantly brought closer to realization.
Conflict and capacity building forms an integral part of human rights. As the second is more strengthened by means of human rights education, the world can see the UN dream of achieving an equal world even sooner. Each one of us should try to protect as many human rights that can be possible every day.
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