Essay on Citizenship Amendment Bill 2019 (CAB)

Citizenship Amendment Bill 2019 in hindi

Controversial The Citizenship Amendment Bill 2019 is passed in the parliament. In various parts of India, people are protesting against it. CAB is at the center of all media coverage now. After Triple Talaq bill, Ayodhya verdict this is one of the major development in Indian politics. And we expect that college and university students can get this topic for essay writing or even for speech competitions.

There are lots of articles available over the internet on this topic. Here we are trying to simplify the information so that it can be easily consumed by students. We are trying to make students aware of the big and small things happening around them. So if you like this essay then and let us know in the comments.

Essay on Citizenship Amendment Bill 2019

The Citizenship Amendment Bill 2019 is amendment is the Citizenship Act 1955. The bill makes Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christian illegal migrants from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Pakistan who have entered India before 31 December 2014 eligible for citizenship of India. According to the bill, these illegal migrants will have to live in India for 5 years instead of 11 years. According to IB records, more than 30,000 people will benefit from the amendment.

The background

The Bharatiya Janata Party had promised citizenship to Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis, and Christians illegal immigrants (refugees) from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, but not Muslims from these countries. In the party’s election manifesto in 2014, the BJP promised to welcome and give shelter to Hindu refugees. The Citizenship Amendment Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha in 2016 but it had to be stopped due to widespread political opposition in Northeast India. The main concern of the people of Northeast India was that after this bill, the demography of Northeast India will change due to the migrants from Bangladesh. Subsequently, the bill was brought again in 2019, which excludes the Northeast Indian states.

In the 2019 election campaign, the promise of the Citizenship Amendment Bill was again made in the BJP’s manifesto. In 2019, the National Register of Citizens (NRC) was updated in the state of Assam, leaving 1.9 million residents, most of whom were Hindus. For this reason, the Citizenship Bill was reintroduced in 2019.

History of Citizenship Bill

The Citizenship Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 19 July 2016 for rectification in the Citizenship Bill 1955 and was referred to the Joint Parliamentary Committee on 12 August 2016.

The Union Cabinet approved the Citizenship Amendment Bill 2019 to be introduced in Parliament on 4 December 2019. The citizenship bill was introduced in the 17th Lok Sabha by Minister Amit Shah on Thursday, 9 December 2019. This bill was passed on 10 December 2019 at 12:11 pm. 311 members voted in favor and 80 against the amendments. The bill was introduced in the Rajya Sabha on 11 December 2019 and passed.


Under the Citizenship Bill 1955, to get citizenship by naturalization, the applicant must have lived in India for at least 11 months during the last 12 months and must have lived in India for at least 11 of the last 14 years. This requirement has been reduced in the Citizenship Amendment Bill 2019, now the requirement of 11 years has been reduced to 5 years.

The tribal areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Tripura are exempted from this bill. These tribal areas include Karbi Anglong in Assam, Garo Hills in Meghalaya, Chakma District in Mizoram and Tribal Districts in Tripura. It has also exempted regulated areas through Inner Line Permits which include Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, and Nagaland. Manipur has also been announced for inclusion in the Inner Line Permit on 10 December 2019. Assam is not included in this list so Assamese people are protesting against CAB. The Citizenship Amendment Bill 2019 contains new provisions to cancel the registration of the Foreign Citizenship of India (OCI) too.


One of the major disputes with the bill is that it makes a distinction on the basis of religion. Implementation of this bill can damage the bilateral relationship with Bangladesh, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Assam faces the biggest infiltration of Bangladeshi Hindus, this bill does not consider these immigrants as illegal immigrants. Muslims also get discriminated in countries like China, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar. In 2015 36000 Rohingya Muslims fled from Myanmar. This bill does not make them eligible for citizenship via this bill.

Article 14 of the Constitution of India assures equality to all persons including citizens and foreigners. Under Article 14 people can be divided only if a proper objective can be fulfilled by doing so. The biggest protest about the Citizenship Bill 2019 is whether the Bill is in violation of Article 14 because the Bill allows citizenship to illegal migrants based on their country of origin, religion, date of entry into India and place of residence in India.

Why the CAB is required?

Thousands of Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Christian, Buddhist, and Parsis are getting persecuted in countries like Bangladesh Afghanistan and Pakistan. To save their lives they enter into India to seek Asylum. In most cases, they don’t have their documents with them and that brings difficulty in getting long term visas or citizenship. Existing citizenship laws do not permit an applicant to apply for citizenship without valid documents. Plus they have to stay in India for at least 11 years out of the last 14 years. During this waiting time, asylum seekers cannot enjoy the rights of a normal Indian citizen. Hindus persecuted in other countries have no other place except India to go. For such reasons, Citizenship Amendment Bill 2019 was required.


The American International Religious Freedom Commission (USCIRF) called for sanctions against Amit Shah and “other key leadership” for passing the bill on 9 December 2019.

Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan criticized the proposed citizenship law as a law violating “bilateral agreements”.

In January 2019, the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) of the Indian Army told a Joint Committee of Parliament on the old version of the CAB that “the CAB could be misused by foreign agents to infiltrate India” and this could be used as “Legal framework” to infiltrate India.”

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