Today the world climate is changing rapidly due to drastic acceleration in global warming levels. This issue has raised serious concerns about the natural disaster. Draught is the most disastrous form of a natural disaster which has adversely affected the mankind. India had been persistently victimized by droughts, which resulted in deaths of large members of human and livestock.
As drought is one of the major problems faced by India, students in schools are usually asked to write an essay, speech, paragraph about droughts in exams and competitions. In this article, we have given you all the information about droughts, the types of draughts, causes, and reasons behind draughts, effects, and consequences of droughts and solutions for reducing the droughts. This information will help you to write a perfect essay on droughts, why they happen and how to reduce them. So let’s go ahead.
Essay on Droughts in India Information, Speech, Paragraph and Article in the English Language for School Students
Drylands, starving people, animals, and failed crops are common issues that people face during a drought. Failure of rainfall is the most common cause of drought. Though various technological efforts and natural attempts have been initiated to bring down the impacts of drought and bring advancement to agricultural methods in the country. Low rainfall or failure of monsoon rains lead to human misery in numerous forms. No rains mean no drinking water which ultimately leads to no food or fodder. This has been responsible for droughts and famines. The word drought, generally, denotes acute scarcity of water in a region. Drought is a temporary condition that occurs for a short period due to river flow, water supply, and human consumption. Drought is due to inconsistency in atmospheric circulation.
Drought is an abnormal climatic condition characterized by an insufficient supply of moisture resulting either from less rainfall, uneven distribution, higher water needs or other natural factors. Droughts lead to problems like widespread crop failure, scarce groundwater reserves, decreased reservoirs, shortage of drinking water, reduced fodder availability etc.
There are many permanent drought-affected areas in India that include West Rajasthan and the Kutch region of Gujarat. The monsoon becomes weak by the time they reach these areas, hence, the main reason is their geographical location. Other vulnerable areas are Western Orrisa, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Central Maharashtra, interior Karnataka and parts of Tamil Nadu.
Types of Droughts | The Classification of Droughts
Droughts are classified into six kinds:
This type of drought is found in the desert climate and agriculture is possible only by irrigation during the entire crop season.
This is found in climates with well-defined rainy and dry seasons. Duration of the crop varieties and planting dates should be such that the growing season should fall within rainy season.
This involves unexpected failure of rainfall. It occurs in most parts of humid or sub-humid climates. It is usually brief, irregular and generally affects only a small area.
In India, the definition for meteorological drought adopted by IMD is a situation when the deficiency of rainfall at a meteorological sub-division level is 25 percent or more of the long-term average (LTA) of that subdivision for a given period. Drought is considered moderate; if the deficiency is between 26 and 50 percent and severe if it is more than 50 percent.
It occurs with depletion of surface water and consequent drying of reservoirs, tanks etc. This is based on water balance and how it affects irrigation as a whole for bringing crops to maturity.
This kind of drought occurs when atmospheric moisture is reduced to the degree that soil moisture is impacted. The reduction of moisture in the soil takes a toll on crops and animals. This situation arises as a consequence of scant precipitation or its uneven distribution both in space and time. It is also usually referred as soil drought. When soil moisture and rainfall are inadequate during crop growing season to support healthy crop growth to maturity, which situation causes extreme crop stress and wilting is called an agricultural drought.
Causes and Reasons behind Droughts | Why Droughts Happen?
- Scarcity of Rainfall
Droughts occur whenever there are prolonged periods of scanty rainfall for a year or more and usually when there is a lack of anticipated rainfall or precipitation. When a region goes for long periods without any rain, especially for more than a season, then the situation leads to dry conditions and water deficiency which causes drought.
- Differences in land and water temperatures
The difference in land and water temperatures cause drought.When the land temperature is high, more water evaporates which leads to changes in weather conditions. Environment and crops need more water to survive and overall the demand for water increases.
- Depletion of soil
Widespread deforestation and cutting of trees have reduced the ability of the soil to hold water. When soil moisture is depleted there is less evaporation of water to create clouds. Surface temperatures rise, more water is needed and less is available which contributes to a more severe drought.
- Lack of proper water harvesting methods
The villages in India lack proper water harvesting techniques which fail to store rainwater, as a result, all the rainwater gets depleted from the surface. As a result, when drought strikes these areas have no stored reserves of water.
- Changes in climate
Global warming is the main reason for drastic climate change which can contribute to droughts. Global warming is likely to impact the weather conditions all around the world. The scientists have proved that human activities are the main contributors to the increase in greenhouse effect to the atmosphere. This increase in greenhouse gasses has resulted in warmer temperatures. Warmer temperatures are responsible for dryness and scanty rains. These conditions contribute to prolonged drought.
Effects and Impacts of Droughts
Following are the effect, impacts, and consequences of droughts.
Economic effects of droughts usually involve loss of money by governments, enterprises, families or individuals. Below is an outline of the main economic impacts of droughts:
- Failed crop leads to low income. Low yields also lead to paying cuts and layoffs to the farm worker.
- Long periods of no rainfalls mean drier conditions. This makes an area prone to forest fires. Forest fires can destroy lands, burn down crops and forests. Governments spend huge money to prevent wildfires annually. All this affects the economy of the region.
- If water supply drops down, electricity plants will not be able to meet the demand. To fulfill the demand, the businesses will have to pay more for electricity or incur the cost of using their own generators. The government also loses a big chunk of tax revenue.
- Farmers will have to spend huge sums of money for irrigation of crops and watering animals. This involves drilling wells or buying water from far distances.
- Droughts lead to drying of water bodies such as rivers, lakes, ponds, lagoons, and creeks and this leads to the death of water animals.
- Soil moisture is important for holding crops and droughts destroys the soil quality since there is less to zero organic activity because organisms have died.
- Droughts lead to scanty vegetation as the forests and dry out during droughts which in turn leads to low air quality and reduced oxygen levels.
The social effects of drought are very critical since they directly impact humans.
Lack of adequate drinking water
Water is important to our health. When there is a shortage, people lack enough clean water to drink.
Lack of education
When there is a water shortage in an area, children often drop out from school to help their parents look for water. Some of them grow too weak to go to school.
Droughts make it difficult to grow crops especially in dry areas that depend on irrigation. When crops are not planted, there won’t be enough food for people.
Lack of enough water makes cleaning of dishes, clothes and other household items difficult. They will remain dirty and unhygienic. This will have a negative effect on the health of an individual.
Solutions and Ways to Reduce Droughts | How to Stop Draughts?
By following the below-mentioned ways and solution the droughts can be reduced.
- Planting trees in and around farms reduce soil erosion by providing a natural barrier against strong winds and rainfall.
- Water conservation is the most important drought precaution. Rainwater harvesting is a great way to conserve water.Proper use of rainwater techniques can be a great relief during the drought period.
- Desilting of lake beds /tanks in summer, this would increase storage capacity and also charge ground water.
- Rainwater harvesting should be made compulsory
- Aggressive investment in technology for sea-water desalination can contribute to preventing droughts.
- Linking of rivers: A national plan should be made for this, wherever feasible we should link rivers
- Leas water-intensive crops should be advised for farmers in drought-prone areas
- Water pipelines to be provided for drought-prone areas
Drought management practices have reduced the hazardous consequences globally. However, these efforts need to focus more on environmental conservation and management like using modern technologies for rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge, water conservation at the basin or micro level etc. Further, there is a need to enhance capacity building and skills for an early warning system in light of climate change impacts.
Tips for Writing an Essay on Droughts
Following are some best tips to write essays on topics like droughts.
- Essays have following section- Beginning with the introduction, followed by multiple paragraphs about the topic and ending with the conclusion. Follow this structure while writing your essay.
- before starting to write the essay, think for a while and decide what things you are going to write in the essay.
- Keep your essay neat and clean.
- Use a dark inked pen to write the essay.
Tips for the Speech on Droughts
Following are some best tips for the perfect speech on droughts.
- Practice your speech a lot before the competition. Take help from your friends and family members.
- Don’t mug up the speech. Try to understand the information in the speech.
- Speak with confidence.
- Be audible to the audience.
- Do not mumble.
- Use proper use of body language and hand gestures.
I hope you find this essay, speech, article helpful. If this article helped you in any sense, then please Rate the article with 5 stars and leave a comment in the comment section below. Thank you. 🙂